Gas nanobubbles 

  • Nanobubbles: gas filled cavities in a solution (water) with a diameter less than 100 nanometers (1 meter = 1,000,000,000 nanometers) .
  • Gas nanobubbles will easily penetrate through the skin and deep into tissues.

Gas nanobubbles in water

  • High concentration and large surface area.
  • Generated at the highest density (more than 100 million bubbles per mL)
    (See figure on the right).
  • Notable increased concentration of dissolved gas in water.


  • Minimal to no buoyancy effects.
  • Nanobubbles gas/liquid interface is negatively charged.
  • This charge prevents nanobubbles dissipation.
  • Nanobubbles repel each other and avoid coalescence.
  • Long-lived presence in liquids (months).

Oxygen (O2) & Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nanobubbles in water for PN therapy 

  • Proven proprietary nanobubbling technology: low cost and high efficiency.
  • Topical O2 delivery through skin scientifically proven.
  • Large partial pressure (pO2) drives the gas into the tissues.
  • CO2 has vasomotor effects (dilation), increasing blood flow.
  • CO2 triggers bound oxygen release into the tissues.
  • Rapid and deep penetration into skin.
  • Nanobubbles of Oxygen have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.

Increased blood flow and oxygenation provide relief of Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy and may reduce risk of complications (Diabetic Foot Ulcers)