Physical Properties of Nanobubbles
Nanobubbles are extremely small gas bubbles in water that have several unique physical and chemical properties that make them very different from the larger normal bubbles we are used to. The diameter of nanobubbles is between 250 nm and 50 nm, with a typical mean diameter of around 100 nm (1,000 times smaller than one strand of hair). The most important properties of nanobubbles are:
Due to their very small volume and their lightness, the buoyancy is almost null and as a result the gas nanobubbles will be suspended in water for months or years depending on the packaging of the gas nanobubbled water.
Extremely Large Surface Area
When nanobubbles are generated properly, the water contains a very large number of nanobubbles per unit of volume and as a result, their surface area per unit volume is extremely high. The large surface area results in increased gas mass transfer.
Nanobubbles are electrically charged
At the interface between the gas and water, the molecules are organized in such a way that the surface of the nanobubble in water is negatively charged.
Gas Partial Pressure Increase
At atmospheric conditions, the partial pressure of oxygen (dissolved oxygen, DO) in nanobubbled water is increased 5-7 fold as compared to its partial pressure in regular water.
Oxygen Gas Reservoir
As stated above, with the vanishing of buoyancy, the negative surface charges, and control on the surface tension of the nanobubbles contribute to their very long-time stability in water (years in our sealed containers). As a result, the nanobubbles suspended in water play a role as a gas reservoir which maintains elevated dissolved oxygen levels.
Existence and Stability of Gas Nanobubbles
In a study published in 2018 American Chemical Society, researchers from the University of Birmingham, UK finally proved with no doubt that oxygen nanobubbles exist and are very stable in water at high concentrations, approaching one billion (1,000,000,000) nanobubbles per milliliter. The results were confirmed in many laboratories, including Periphex’s, utilizing analytical equipment based on DLS (dynamic light scattering).
Biological Effects of Gas Nanobubbles
Since 2010, oxygen nanobubbles have been extensively studied at Harvard University, Oxford University, Rush and NY Medical Schools with respect to their influence on a spectrum of neurological diseases. These results were presented at the Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting in 2014. In December 2016, researchers from Oxford University published a study entitled “Reducing Tumor Hypoxia via Oral Administration of Oxygen Nanobubbles ” demonstrating the potential medical applications of oxygen nanobubbles.